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Spatio-temporal dominant omnivorous ant-saproxylic beetle species interactions around epigeal-based microhabitats within different oil palm age stand types

AHMAD BUKHARY, A. K., MOHD FAUZI, M. M., RUSLAN ., M. Y., NOOR HISHAM, H ., IZFA RIZA, H ., ABU HASSAN, A ., IDRIS ., A. B.

Abstract


Spatio-temporal patterns of both dominant omnivorous ant Tetramorium species and saproxylic beetle Carpophilus species within different oil palm age stand types were assessed as fundamental ecological model to observe qualitative interactions between generalist and specialist, in relation to microhabitats across the margin, intermediate and interior sections. Wood-based microhabitats were observed to predominantly affecting the overall spatio-temporal patterns of both dominant species compared with vegetated microhabitats. Closey arranged and high pile volume microhabitats were dominated by Tetramorium populations, with the characteristic of steadily escalated populations’ density, related to epigeal-subterranean nesting connections. Widely arranged with moderate
volume wood-based microhabitats and moderate pile volumes were apposite for Carpophilus populations, with gradually increasing populations’ density, lessening space competition and predation risks against Tetramorium populations. Wood-based microhabitats with harder internal structures were less susceptible to be heavily dominated by most Tetramorium populations, but also less suitable to Carpophilus populations, with reduced rotting liquid sap productions. Other vegetated
microhabitats functioned to spatially dispersed Tetramorium populations, dependent upon prey species availability. Current practices of microhabitats' arrangements and compositional variations per oil palm age stand types proved to inadequately support most dominant specialists, simultaneously enhancing most dominant generalists. Impacts of
microhabitats' diversity and intermixing across different oil palm age stand types on generalist-specialist interactions were discussed.

Keywords


Tetramorium spp., Carpophilus spp., spatio-temporal, generalist, specialist, microhabitats, oil palm age stands.

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