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Habitat occupancy and activity patterns of the long-tailed macaques and pig-tailed macaques in Sarawak, Borneo.

JAYASILAN MOHD-AZLAN, ZOE MESSERLI, MELYNDA CHEOK KA YI

Abstract


Both long-tailed macaques and pig-tailed macaques are sympatric species that
spends substantial time on the ground. These promiscuous primates overlap with each other
in body size and distributional range. Results from the camera trapping survey were used to
determine habitat, activity patterns, and the interaction(s) between long-tailed macaques
and pig-tailed macaques within five study areas in Sarawak. Long-tailed macaques seem to
prefer Beach forest (Ψ = 85.34%) and Kerangas (Ψ = 82.10%) compared to Mixed
Dipterocarp Forest (Ψ = 52.72%) and Oil palm plantations (Ψ = 29.46%), and are active in
the afternoon with a peak of activity at 17:00 hours. Whereas the pig-tailed macaques seem
to prefer Mixed Dipterocarp Forest (Ψ = 87.89%) and utilises Oil palm plantations
(Ψ = 72.55%) when compared to Kerangas (Ψ = 27.69%) and Beach forest (Ψ = 0%). This
species is active in the morning with two peaks of activity at 07:00 hours and 10:00 hours.
Long-tailed macaques could be considered as a more ecologically opportunistic and tolerant
to poor habitats species, while pig-tailed macaques prefers forested habitat. Additionally the
long-tailed macaques appears to be more arboreal than pig-tailed macaques, as only 7.40%
of the total cameras trapping records (all independent records of all species) are long-tailed
macaques while 22.28% are pig-tailed macaques.


Keywords


Activity patterns, occupancy, Macaca nemestrina, Macaca fascicularis, Sarawak

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