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Species richness and floristic variation of tree communities in Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. f. dominated forests of Peninsular Malaysia

N. A. NIK NORAFIDA, M. S. NIZAM, W. A. WAN JULIANA, P. FAEZAH

Abstract


Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f. (Dipterocarpaceae), forms monodominant
forests at several specific locations in Peninsular Malaysia, whereby the species obviously occur abundantly in these forest habitats. Although this monodominant forest displays the dominance of D. aromatica, nevertheless, other vegetation communities are always contributing to the uniqueness of this forest habitat that include the richness and diversity of the forest. As such, a study was conducted to determine floristic variation and richness of tree communities of the D. aromatica dominated forest at three different locations in
Peninsular Malaysia, namely, at Bukit Bauk Forest Reserve, Terengganu; Lesong Forest Reserve, Pahang and Kluang Forest Reserve, Johor. Ten plots of 50 m x 20 m were established at each location, totalling one ha. A total of 4,135 trees with diameter at breast height of 5.0 cm and above were enumerated in all the study plots, of which 1,474 trees occurred in the Bukit Bauk plot, whilst 1,364 trees and 1297 trees were recorded in Lesong and Kluang plots, respectively. Floristic composition of tree communities at the Bukit Bauk plots comprised of 336 tree species in 150 genera from 55 families, while the Kluang plots
contained 272 species from 132 genera and 52 families; subsequently, the Lesong plots recorded 289 tree species, 138 genera and 52 families. Euphorbiaceae was the most speciose family in all plots, represented by 50, 27, 39 species at Bukit Bauk, Lesong and Kluang, respectively. Based on species-individual curves, species numbers in all locations did not reach asymptote; hence non-parametric Chao 1 estimator was used to estimate species richness in all study locations, resulting Bukit Bauk displayed the highest number of species, followed by Kluang and Lesong. Coleman rarefaction curve indicates that
species richness of Bukit Bauk differs significantly compared to Kluang and Lesong plots, nevertheless, no significant difference was found for species richness between Kluang and Lesong. Similarity of tree species between the three study areas indicate Sorensen Similarity Index similarity of 41.1% for Bukit Bauk-Kluang, 32.3% for Bukit Bauk-Lesong, and 30.3% for Kluang-Lesong. The ordination diagramme constructed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) demonstrated floristic variation between the three study
plots whereby the DCA obviously separated plots between sites, which indicated a gradient of species change from the Bukit Bauk to the Lesong and Kluang sites.


Keywords


Dryobalanops aromatica, Kapur, monodominant forest, Detrended Correspondence Analysis

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